Articles from the November issue are now available online ahead of print!

title-amexpAre female physician-researchers’ salaries still lagging behind those of men? Find out in a recently published ahead-of-print study in Academic Medicine. New online-first articles describe the role medical students can play in care coordination, how universities and state Medicaid programs can work together, and what medical schools can do to improve students’ attitudes toward geriatrics. Keep reading below for more details.

Commentaries

The Practicality of Theory
Kuper and Whitehead argue that bioscientific and sociocultural theories can enhance research in medical education, presenting a new learning theory-based model for developing master learners. 

Medical Student in Global Health – Just One Part of a Larger Commitment
Scott argues that, in exchange for the educational opportunities provided to medical students, U.S. medical schools should commit to sustained involvement in countries that host global health experiences for students. 

Academic Integrity: “Accepted,” “In Press,” or Unacceptable?
In response to the findings of Grimm and Maxfield, Mushlin and Katz note that one likely explanation for discrepancies in publication outcomes is deliberate falsification. They discuss the professionalism implications. 

Overwhelmed and Uninspired by Lack of Coordinated Care: A Call to Action for New Physicians
Ehrmann suggests that the difficulty in obtaining outside records for newly transferred patients leads to both unnecessary duplication of procedures and learned helplessness for new physicians. 

Developing Physicians as Catalysts for Change
To improve patient care and reduce physician apathy and burnout, George, Frush, and Michener propose training medical students and residents to act as catalysts who initiate and expedite positive changes. 

Advancing the University Mission through Partnerships with State Medicaid Programs
Himmelstein and Bindman describe the universities that have developed formal agreements to provide faculty and care delivery resources to support their state Medicaid programs as a roadmap for others to follow to develop similar, mutually beneficial partnerships. 

Ethical Dilemmas in Clerkship Rotations
After years of collecting students’ experiences with ethical challenges during clinical education, Myers and Herb call attention to the pervasive problem of ethical dilemmas and the culture of fear related to reporting them. 

Perspectives

Making Equity a Value in Value-Based Health Care
Alberti, Bonham, and Kirch envision how recent legislation could be linked with new value-based health care requirements and payment models to create incentives for narrowing health care disparities.

The Challenge of Promoting Professionalism Through Medical Ethics and Humanities Education
Doukas and colleagues present three overarching themes that resulted from the discussions of the future of professionalism in medical education in the PRIME II Workshop: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.

Attitude Adjustment: Shaping Medical Students’ Perceptions of Older Patients with a Geriatrics Curriculum
Bensadon and colleagues argue that systems-based, interdisciplinary training and increased financial incentives are needed to improve learners’ attitudes about geriatrics care, where financial compensation is comparatively low but physician satisfaction is high.

Developing the Master Learner: Applying Learning Theory to the Learner, the Teacher, and the Learning Environment
Schumacher, Englander, and Carraccio argue that learning theories inform the development of master learners, and these theories can be translated into practical strategies for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment. 

Adopting an Ethical Approach to Global Health Training: The Evolution of the Botswana–University of Pennsylvania Partnership
Dacso, Chandra, and Friedman analyze the value of global health training opportunities and offer recommendations to guide implementation of ethically sound international health electives in resource-limited settings. 

Articles

Global Health Educational Engagement – A Tale of Two Models
Rassiwala and colleagues offer this rich comparison between two global health educational models, which aims to inform future efforts to standardize global health education curricula. 

Lessons Learned about Coordinating Academic Partnerships from an International Network for Health Education
Luo and Omollo offer this description of the African Health Open Educational Resources Network, a multicountry, multiorganizational partnership to create, gather, and share open educational resources. 

Applying the Milestones in an Internal Medicine Residency Program Curriculum: A Foundation for Outcomes-Based Learner Assessment Under the Next Accreditation System
Lowry and colleagues describe how the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Kansas Medical Center revised and implemented a milestones-based curriculum to meet the requirements of the ACGME’s Next Accreditation System. 

Enhancement of the Assessment of Physician–Patient Communication Skills in the United States Medical Licensing Examination
Hoppe and colleagues, a team of experts in communication and standardized patient exams, reviewed the literature and recommended enhancements to the Step 2 Clinical Skills examination. 

Innovation Reports

A Framework for Analysis of Sentinel Events in Medical Student Education
Cohen, Clinchot, and Werman found that a sentinel event analysis process appears useful for making system changes in response to institutional issues identified in evaluations of cases in which students fail to progress. 

Bridging Care Transitions: Findings from a Resident-Staffed Early Post-Discharge Program
Lee and colleagues report early outcomes from a quality improvement program for early post-discharge follow up at a resident primary care outpatient practice. 

Research Reports

Gender Differences in Salary in a Recent Cohort of Early-Career Physician-Researchers
Jagsi and colleagues found that, even in a recent cohort of elite, early-career physician researchers, a gender difference in salary exists that specialty, academic rank, work hours, or even spousal employment cannot explain.

Geographic Mobility Advances Careers: Study of the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) Program for Women
Moving had a positive association with career advancement in this 2009 comparison by McLean and colleagues of women’s job titles and locations, according to data for ten cohorts. 

The Influence of the Residency Application Process on the Online Social Networking Behavior of Medical Students: A Single Institutional Study
Strausburg and colleagues found that most students used social sites and changed profile content before applying for residency; a smaller majority believed that students’ online profiles should not be viewed by residency directors. 

The Evolving Role of Online Virtual Patients in Internal Medicine Clerkship Education Nationally
Lang and colleagues found that improving students’ knowledge, differential diagnoses, and identification of findings were reasons for integrating or adding VPs into existing curricula, according to clerkship directors in 2009 and 2011. 

Ultimate Publication Rate of Unpublished Manuscripts Listed on Radiology Residency Applications at One Institution
Grimm and Maxfield investigated the publication outcomes of all manuscripts listed as “provisional accepted,” “accepted,” “in press,” or “submitted” on ERAS applications to one radiology program. 

The Effect of Medical Students and Residents on Measures of Efficiency and Timeliness in an Academic Medical Center Emergency Department
DeLaney and colleagues found that laboratory and radiographic studies accounted for a much larger proportion of variation in outcomes than did the presence of medical students and residents. 

Career Benchmarks from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund’s Early Faculty Career Development Awards
McGovern, Kramarik, and Wilkins found that comparisons between nearly a decade of male and female awardees illuminate trends and differences among awards and honors, funding, promotion, publication, and service and training activities. 

The Doris Duke Clinical Scientist Development Award: Implications for Early Career Physician Scientists
Escobar-Alvarez and Myers aimed to determine if attainment of a Clinical Scientist Development Award is associated with physicians establishing independent and recognized research careers.  

Career Outcomes of the Graduates of the American Board of Internal Medicine Research Pathway, 1995-2007
Todd and colleagues found that graduates of an integrated residency curriculum including both clinical and research training report high research engagement and publication rates as well as extramural research funding. 

Does Medical Training Promote or Deter Self-directed Learning? A Longitudinal Mixed-Methods Study
Premkumar and colleagues found that the drop in scores one year after admission and lack of change thereafter show that current educational interventions and/or curricula may require alteration to ones that promote self-directed learning.  

Reviews

The Social and Learning Environments Experienced by Underrepresented Minority Medical Students: A Narrative Review
Orom, Semalulu, and Underwood reviewed the literature on the social and learning environments experienced by URM medical students to determine what interventions are needed to eliminate potential barriers to enrolling and retaining URM students.  

Educational Objectives for International Medical Electives: A Literature Review
Cherniak, Drain, and Brewer found that few published articles define educational objectives for trainees on international medical electives. The few objectives available primarily focus on intra- (not pre- or post-) elective learning.

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