What’s New: A Preview of the August Issue
The August issue of Academic Medicine is now available! Read the entire issue online at academicmedicine.org or on your iPad using the Academic Medicine for iPad app. Highlights include:
Sounding Off on Social Media: The Ethics of Patient Storytelling in the Modern Era
Wells and colleagues explore scenarios in which patient stories were shared on social media. Even when laws are not broken, ethical challenges and consequences exist when sharing stories in this way.
The Passion and the Peril: Storytelling in Medicine
Responding to Wells and colleagues, Ofri suggests that experienced caregivers need to help students understand that stories provide depth and meaning to medicine, but when broadcast inappropriately can cause harm.
Transforming Primary Care Residency Training: A Collaborative Faculty Development Initiative Among Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Pediatric Residencies
Carney and colleagues describe the Primary Care Faculty Development Initiative, which was developed to teach faculty how to accelerate revisions in primary care residency training, and the preliminary outcomes of the pilot.
Making Meaning From Sensory Cues: A Qualitative Investigation of Postgraduate Learning in the Operating Room
Cope and colleagues’ interviews with trainee and attending surgeons revealed perceptions of what surgeons learned in the operating room. Learning occurred across a range of domains, including the previously unidentified domain of “sensory semiosis.”
What’s In the Queue: A Sneak Peek
Here’s a preview of an article by Eppich and colleagues that will be part of a special collection on mastery learning in the November issue.
Structuring Feedback and Debriefing to Achieve Mastery Learning Goals
Walter J. Eppich, MD, MEd, Elizabeth A. Hunt, MD, MPH, PhD, Jordan M. Duval-Arnould, MPH, Viva Jo Siddall, MS, and Adam Cheng, MD
Mastery learning is a powerful educational strategy in which learners gain knowledge and skills that are rigorously measured against predetermined mastery standards with variable time needed to reach uniform outcomes. Central to mastery learning is repetitive, deliberate practice and robust feedback that promote performance improvement. Traditional health care simulation involves a simulation exercise followed by a facilitated post-event debriefing in which learners discuss what went well and what they should do differently next time, usually without additional opportunities to apply the specific new knowledge. Mastery learning approaches enable learners to “try again” until they master the skill of interest. Despite the growing body of health care simulation literature documenting the efficacy of mastery learning models, to date insufficient details have been reported on how to design and implement the feedback and debriefing components of deliberate practice-based educational interventions. Using simulation-based training for adult and pediatric advanced life support as case studies, this paper focuses on: (1) preparing learners for feedback and debriefing by establishing a supportive yet challenging learning environment; (2) implementing educational interventions that maximize opportunities for deliberate practice with feedback and reflection during debriefing; (3) describing the role of within-event debriefing or “microdebriefing” (i.e., during a pause in the simulation scenario or during ongoing case management without interruption), as a strategy to promote performance improvement; and (4) highlighting directions for future research in feedback and debriefing for mastery learning.